Papin, Denis

Papin, Denis
[br]
b. 22 August 1647 Blois, Loire et Cher, France
d. 1712 London, England
[br]
French mathematician and physicist, inventor of the pressure-cooker.
[br]
Largely educated by his father, he worked for some time for Huygens at Ley den, then for a time in London where he assisted Robert Boyle with his experiments on the air pump. He supposedly invented the double-acting air pump. He travelled to Venice and worked there for a time, but was back in London in 1684 before taking up the position of Professor of Mathematics at the University of Marburg (in 1669 or 1670 he became a Doctor of Medicine at Angers), where he remained from 1687 to 1695. Then followed a period at Cassel, where he was employed by the Duke of Hesse. In this capacity he was much involved in the application of steam-power to pumping water for the Duke's garden fountains. Papin finally returned to London in 1707. He is best known for his "digester", none other than the domestic pressure-cooker. John Evelyn describes it in his diary (12 April 1682): "I went this Afternoone to a Supper, with severall of the R.Society, which was all dressed (both fish and flesh) in Monsieur Papins Digestorie; by which the hardest bones of Biefe itself, \& Mutton, were without water, or other liquor, \& with less than 8 ounces of Coales made as soft as Cheeze, produc'd an incredible quantity of Gravie…. This Philosophical Supper raised much mirth among us, \& exceedingly pleased all the Companie." The pressure-cooker depends on the increase in the boiling point of water with increase of pressure. To avoid the risk of the vessel exploding, Papin devised a weight-loaded lever-type safety valve.
There are those who would claim that Papin preceded Newcomen as the true inventor of the steam engine. There is no doubt that as early as 1690 Papin had the idea of an atmospheric engine, in which a piston in a cylinder is forced upwards by expanding steam and then returned by the weight of the atmosphere upon the piston, but he lacked practical engineering skill such as was necessary to put theory into practice. The story is told of his last trip from Cassel, when returning to England. It is said that he built his own steamboat, intending to make the whole journey by this means, ending with a triumphal journey up the Thames. However, boatmen on the river Weser, thinking that the steamboat threatened their livelihood, attacked it and broke it up. Papin had to travel by more orthodox means. Papin is said to have co-operated with Thomas Savery in the development of the lat-ter's steam engine, on which he was working c. 1705.
[br]
Further Reading
Charles-Armand Klein, 1987, Denis Papin: Illustre savant blaisois, Chambray, France: CLD.
A.P.M.Fleming and H.R.S.Brocklehurst, 1925, A History of Engineering.
Sigvar Strandh, 1979, Machines, Mitchell Beazley.
IMcN

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Papin, Denis — (1647 1714)    inventor    Born in Chitenay, near Blois, Denis Papin was the first to discover the elastic power of water vapor and spent the rest of his life inventing and perfecting various machines that employed that power. Forced into exile… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Papin, Denis — ▪ British physicist born Aug. 22, 1647, Blois, Fr. died c. 1712, , London, Eng.  French born British physicist who invented the pressure cooker and suggested the first cylinder and piston steam engine. Though his design was not practical, it was… …   Universalium

  • Papin, Denis — ► (1647 1712) Físico francés. Inventó el digestor, conocido como marmita de Papin. Fue un precursor de la máquina de vapor …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • PAPIN, DENIS —    French physicist, born at Blois, practised medicine at Angers; came to England and assisted Boyle in his experiments, made a special study of the expansive power of steam and its motive power, invented a steam digester with a safety valve,… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Denis Papin — um 1706 Denis Papin (* 22. August 1647 in Blois, Frankreich; † vermutlich 1712 in London), war Physiker, Mathematiker und Erfinder und erlangte Bekanntheit für seine Pionierarbeiten zur Entwicklung der Dampfmaschine, des Schnellkochtopfes …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Denis Papin — Denis Papin, unknown artist, 1689. Born 22 August 1647 Chitenay (presen …   Wikipedia

  • Denis Papin — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Denis Papin Denis Papin (Blois, 22 de agosto de 1647 c. 1712) fue un físico e inventor francés. Contenido …   Wikipedia Español

  • PAPIN (D.) — PAPIN DENIS (1647 1714) Inventeur et physicien français né à Chitenay, près de Blois, et mort à Londres. Abandonnées depuis Héron d’Alexandrie (IIIe s.), les recherches sur la vapeur sont reprises, au XVIIe siècle, après la découverte, toute… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Papin — (Denis) (1647 1714) physicien français. Il découvrit la force élastique de la vapeur. Il inventa l autocuiseur et sa soupape de sûreté (marmite de Papin) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Denis Papin — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Papin. Denis Papin …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Papin — ► sustantivo masculino COCINA Dulce casero. * * * papín (de «papa2», comida) m. Cierto *dulce casero. * * * papín. m. Especie de dulce casero. * * * Papin, Denis …   Enciclopedia Universal

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”